Had a question come in from a customer that centered around understanding the difference between 2 legged and 3 legged OAuth so I thought I would write a little about it. I short 2 legged and 3 legged OAuth refers to the number of players involved in the OAuth dance but let’s explain each.
3 legged OAuth is used when you as a user wants to allow an application (i.e. Salesforce) to access a service (i.e. Azure) on your behalf without the application (Salesforce knowing your credentials for the service (Azure). This is accomplished by me (the user) being redirected by the application (Salesforce) to the service (Azure) where I log in directly, I obtain a code that the application (Salesforce) can use to obtain an access token for the service (Azure) out of band (i.e. the application contacts the service directly). Key is that I the user am involved because I need to authenticate to the service (Azure) and the application is afterwards able to impersonate me towards the service.
2 legged OAuth is used when an application needs to access a service using a service account (e.g. an App Registration as it’s called in Azure). The key here is that the application has all the information it needs to authenticate to the service. In 2 legged OAuth the application makes a single call to the service to basically exchange credentials (username/password, client_id/client_secret, Json Web Token (JWT)) for an access token. As an aside there is usually no way to get a refresh token issued in a 2 legged OAuth dance which is fair as the application could just perform the 2 legged OAuth dance again to get a new access token hence no need for a refresh token.
Looking back towards Salesforce and Named Credentials which is the way we recommend customers manage credentials for accessing services outside Salesforce. In Named Credentials you can use 3 legged OAuth if you selected “OAuth 2.0” for “Authentication Protocol” and 2 legged OAuth if you select “JWT” for “Authentication Protocol”.
During our regional (Nordic) kickoff last week (while I was skiing with my family) I was proud and happy to hear that I’d been awarded the Outstanding SE Achievement award. Picked up the award today including the accompanying two bottles of champagne. Very nice.
Previously wrote about this (Using Heroku Postgres from local development setup) but starting with Postgres 8 implicit disabling of certificate verification is deprecated and will be removed. To avoid the deprecation message add “rejectUnauthorized=false” to the URL as well so a full URL in your .env file (or similar will be):
While we are waiting for a SpinRite version that will run on Mac there is an option to run it on disks attached to your Mac using VirtualBox. I found an awesome description on how to do it on the web (Running SpinRite 6.0 on MacOS (Part 1)) and thought I’d share the link and log it here for future reference. Love it!
Tonight I took and passed the exam to become Salesforce Certified Sharing and Visibility Designer. This is one of the two missing certifications on my track to become a Salesforce Certified Application Architect. Very happy I passed and must say that it is among the hardest Salesforce certifications I’ve taken so far.
Not necessarily because of the topic but more because the questions asked are very long and very hard to decipher at times. Many questions seems to test your ability to read and understand English more than your ability to grasp sharing and visibility topics. Also for many of the questions you need to select 2 or 3 answers instead of the single radio-button answer of many other certifications.
Salesforce only supports the Java Keystore (JKS) format for importing private/public key pairs (with certificate) into a Salesforce org. Certificates and private/public keypairs are important when using Json Web Tokens (JWT’s) for integration using outbound flows as the JWT needs to be signed using the private key.
If working with Named Credentials for an outbound JWT token flow you need to import a private/public key into Salesforce using “Certificate and Key Management” in Setup. In the latter case you could also use a self-signed certificate generated in Salesforce.
What ever you do you need a valid keystore. Below are the commands I use to generate a private/public keypair with openssl and then use keytool (the Java keystore tool) to import into a Java keystore valid for Salesforce.
# generate private/public keypair
openssl req -newkey rsa:2048 -nodes -keyout private_key.pem -x509 -days 365 -out certificate.pem
# write certificate in binary file (some sytems need binary format)
openssl x509 -outform der -in certificate.pem -out public_key.der
# get the public key from the certificate
openssl x509 -in certificate.pem -pubkey > public_key.pem
# import certificate into Java Key Store (JKS)
# !!! Be sure to trust the certificate - otherwise it's not imported
keytool -importcert -file certificate.pem -keystore keystore.jks -alias mycertificate -storetype jks
# create a PKCS12 keystore with private/public keypair
openssl pkcs12 -inkey private_key.pem -in certificate.pem -export -out keystore.p12 -name mykey
# import keypair into Java keystore
keytool -importkeystore -destkeystore keystore.jks -srckeystore keystore.p12 -srcstoretype pkcs12 -destalias mykey -srcalias mykey
Did a proof-of-concept for an Azure Function in node.js that uses Redis Cache for session storage as the function runtime is 100% managed and using memory store doesn’t make sense. Once I had this I wanted to play with the local development support but that didn’t work as I was using node.js v. 13 and the Azure tooling only works an LTS version of node.js (meaning 12.x at the time of this writing). To fix I had to uninstall my current version of node.js and switch to v. 12.x as follows (I’m using Homebrew to manage dependencies):
brew uninstall node
brew install node@12
Then I had to update my PATH as the node binary is not in /usr/local/bin anymore but rather in /usr/local/opt/node@12/bin. Once that was done the Azure tooling for local application development worked like a charm.
Whenever you work with Json Web Tokens (JWT’s) generating them for testing is always a hassle as they usually are required to expire quite quickly (like in the order of minutes). To make that easier I wrote a small utility in node.js to generate JWT’s compatible with the Salesforce OAuth 2.0 JWT Bearer Flow.
If working with JWT’s for use with the inbound OAuth 2.0 JWT Bearer Token Flow you need to import a public key and a certificate to validate the signature of the JWT when calling into Salesforce. This is done on the Connected App and the import supports binary DER-format and the plain text PEM-format.
Once you’ve created your Connected App, check “Enable OAuth Settings” and under “Use digital signatures” import the certificate (PEM or DER format) to use to validate the signature of the JWT.
Using the actual flow requires you set the Consumer Key as the issuer (“iss”), the username of the user to act as, as the subject (“sub”) and the login-url as the audience (“aud”). The login-url will be https://login.salesforce.com, https://test.salesforce.com or a community url.